Brazil competes with China, India to invest in Africa
July 10, 2012 | 0 Comments
By Teo Kermeliotis, for CNN
(CNN) — Brazil has intensified its efforts to forge closer relations with Africa recently, as the sixth largest economy in the world tries to compete with other emerging giants like China and India to take a more central role in the resource-rich continent.
Last month, Brazil’s top investment bank BTG Pactual unveiled plans to raise $1 billion to create the world’s biggest investment fund for Africa, focusing on areas such as infrastructure, energy and agriculture.
The independent bank’s fund, which comes amid a government drive to establish a strategic partnership with Africa, is one of the latest moves signaling Brazil’s increasing interest to extend its economic footprint on the continent — trade between Brazil and Africa jumped from around $4 billion in 2000 to about $20 billion in 2010.
“It does represent a turning point where a lot of these investors and these entities for investments are recognizing that Africa is indeed the last frontier for growth,” says Lyal White, director of the Centre for Dynamic Markets at the Gordon Institute for Business Science in South Africa.
An unprecedented decade of economic growth in Africa, coupled with a series of policy and institutional reforms, has attracted emerging global powers into the continent, seeking to gain a stronger foothold in the continent in their bid to reach more markets and forge new political alliances.
Brazil has kind of been operating under the radar, it is not seen necessarily as one of those kind of players.
Markus Weimer, Chatham House
But while much has been said and written about China’s and India’s strides in Africa, Brazil’s African foray has garnered less attention.
“Brazil has kind of been operating under the radar, it is not seen necessarily as one of those kind of players [China and India],” says Markus Weimer, research fellow in the Africa Program at Chatham House. “The stories of Brazil with Africa have also been less contentious — you’ve heard stories from Zambia about miners being mistreated by their Chinese bosses but you don’t hear from Mozambique or Angola when it comes to Brazilian companies.”
Using Portuguese-speaking countries like Angola and Mozambique as an entry point to the continent, Brazil’s state and private companies have made big inroads in various parts the continent, operating mostly in strategic sectors such as infrastructure, mining and energy — last year, mining giant Vale announced plans to spend more than £12 billion on investments in Africa over the next five years.
But while Brazil, like China, seems to be deeply engaged with the African resource sector, some analysts say its strategy and interests are quite distinct from its resource-hungry BRICS partner.
“Being a resource-rich country and a future major oil exporter itself, Brazil is not pursuing a strategy to secure resources,” says Christina Stolte, research at the German Institute for Global and Area Studies.
“Rather, the South American economy is seeing Africa as a means of diversifying its export markets — for food, seeds, agricultural machinery — and internationalizing the production of its big companies — Petrobras in the oil and biofuels business, Vale in the mining business.”
Although separated by the Atlantic Ocean, Brazil and Africa have long historical and cultural ties, dating back to the days of slave trade in the 16th century, where scores of Africans where shipped to the former Portuguese colony to be exploited as slaves on the sugar cane plantations.
Today, Brazil is quick to use this cultural affinity with Africa as an advantage in its competition with the other powers acting on the continent, analysts say.
“The fact that the majority of Brazil’s population is of Afro-Brazilian origin — making Brazil the world’s largest black population after Nigeria — is frequently quoted by the, almost exclusively white, governing elite of Brazil in order to stress Brazil’s cultural similarities with the African countries,” says Stolte.
Such remarks could often be heard during the 2003-2010 presidency of Lula da Silva, who made Africa a strategic priority for Brazil as part of the country’s efforts to expand its global influence.
During his eight-year tenure, Lula made 12 trips to Africa, visiting 21 countries, more than any of his predecessors. At the same time, Brazil increased the number of its embassies in Africa from 17 in 2002 to 37, boasting today more embassies in the continent than the United Kingdom.
The South American economy is seeing Africa as a means of diversifying its export markets.
Christina Stolte, GIGA
Brazil’s deepening engagement with Africa has also continued under the leadership of Dilma Rousseff, who became president of Brazil in January 2011 — in her first year in office, Rousseff visited Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa.
Analysts say Brazil has adopted a three-pronged approach to its engagement with Africa, with an “almost seamless interaction” between the government, the private sector and development institutions.
“This all kind of comes together as one coherent strategy toward Africa from Brazil,” says White.
Brazilian companies seeking to do business in the continent tend to hire and train local workforce and offer social projects to foster home-grown development — in Angola, Brazilian construction company Odebrecht has become the largest private employer in the country.
In recent decades, Brazil has gone from being a net importer of food to one of the world’s biggest exporters of agricultural and food products. More recently, Brazil’s per capita income rose an average of 1.8% faster than its GDP in 2003-09, according to a World Bank report.
As a result, Brazil’s domestic development experience and success in narrowing social inequality have attracted attention from several African countries who are keen to replicate some of its programs.
Analysts say Brazil is keen to leverage its advanced technological know-how in helping African countries in areas that are key to the continent’s development, including tropical agriculture and disease fighting.
“Brazil therefore sees itself as partner for African countries that is able to offer successful strategies to fight the continent’s most pending problems such as hunger and AIDS,” says Stolte.
*Courtesy of http:edition.cnn.com
Sullivan Summit IX to Host the Global Youth Innovation Network Forum in Equatorial Guinea, Creating Economic Opportunities for Young Entrepreneurs and Leaders
July 7, 2012 | 0 Comments
Washington D.C., July 6th, 2012 – In response to the youth-led Arab Spring, African Heads of State have accelerated the 2009-2018 “Decade of Youth Action Plan” at the African Union 2011 Summit, which was held in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea. With high youth unemployment seen as an impending threat to stability in Africa (AU, 2011), solutions to create opportunity are highly regarded and welcomed by African Statesmen.
In that perspective, the Leon H. Sullivan Foundation in conjunction with Phelps Stokes, the global education and leadership advocacy organization, will host the Global Youth Innovation Network Forum during the 9th Sullivan Summit, from August 20-24, in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea.
The Forum, through the integration of the Global Youth Innovation Network (GYIN) will convene more than 60 young entrepreneurs and leaders from over 30 countries to share practices to develop evidence-based, sustainable, and cost-effective entrepreneurship and leadership programs and policies that address the root causes of African youth unemployment while increasing the opportunities of young people to obtain jobs and start successful businesses.
The Leon H. Sullivan Foundation and Phelps Stokes, in partnership with the Global Youth Innovation Network (GYIN) commit to lift 5000 youth from around the world out of poverty by 2015. The goal will be achieved through leadership and entrepreneurship training, workforce development, funding, and exposure to business prospects as well as small to medium-scale businesses.
“Investing in young people is key to enhancing agricultural productivity and food security, boosting economies and reducing rural-to-urban migration in Africa… youth have enormous potential for the innovation and risk-taking that is often at the core of growth and development, particularly in agriculture,” said Pape Samb, CEO of Phelps Stokes.
The 9th Leon H. Sullivan Summit will attract more than 4,000 participants from the United States, Africa, Europe, Asia and the Caribbean, and will address matters related to Food Security, Agricultural Sustainability, Human Rights, Trade and Regional Integration and Youth Employment. More than 150 organizations and governments are expected to attend the 9th Leon Sullivan Summit and invest in young entrepreneurs so that they can improve their lives, contribute to their communities, and become successful professionals..
“The continent’s youth are the leaders of tomorrow, and only by creating a platform in which they can adequately engage, inspire and enrich others, will they be able to create social and economic dynamism necessary for Africa to truly experience its rise as a global economic player,” stated Ms. Hope Sullivan Masters, President and CEO of the Leon H. Sullivan Foundation.
More information can be found at www.sullivansummit.org
Mandela daughter Zenani appointed Argentina Ambassador
July 5, 2012 | 0 Comments
The daughter of South African anti-apartheid fighter Nelson Mandela has been appointed ambassador to Argentina, the South American nation has said.
Zenani Mandela-Dlamini is the oldest daughter from the former president’s marriage to Winnie Madikizela-Mandela.
Argentina said her appointment represented the importance South Africa attached to their relationship.
Ms Mandela-Dlamini, 53, was a child when her father was imprisoned for 27 years by the white minority government.
She was not allowed to visit him in jail until she was 16 years old, the Associated Press news agency reports.
A graduate of the University of Boston, Ms Mandela-Dlamini was once married to a Swazi prince.
Mr Mandela became South Africa’s first black and democratically elected president in 1994, stepping down after one term in office.
The Nobel Peace Prize laureate, who turns 94 this month, retired from public life eight years ago – his last public appearance was at the World Cup in South Africa in 2010.
“During the presidency of Nelson Mandela, recognised as a global figure for his fight against apartheid and for human rights, Zenani Dlamini accompanied her father to act as first lady of her country,” Reuters news agency quotes a statement from Argentina’s foreign ministry as saying.
According to the AFP news agency, bilateral trade between South Africa and Argentina is worth about $1.3bn (£830m).
*Culled From BBC Africa
Apps4Africa: Winners in Southern Africa Contest
July 4, 2012 | 0 Comments
The U.S. Department of State is pleased to announce the Southern Africa winners of the Apps4Africa: Climate Challenge, a regional competition to address local climate change challenges through the development of web-based and mobile applications. Marieme Jamme, CEO of private sector partner SpotOne Global Solutions, announced the winners on June 15 at the annual Africa Gathering event in London, England.
First place was awarded to MyHealth, a mobile application developed by a team from Botswana. MyHealth provides climate information, early warning alerts, and health monitoring features to its users to help them adapt to shifting patterns of disease and other health emergencies as the climate changes. Second place was awarded to Service Anti-Cyclone, which alerts users in Madagascar to pending cyclones, and collects data on cyclone patterns and impacts, including injuries, deaths, and property damage caused by storms. The application will also provide information to help communities prepare for future cyclones. Third place was awarded to unsApp, a web forum for improving food security in Zimbabwe where users can access climate change information and adaptive management techniques that match the needs and customs of their communities.
Through programs such as Apps4Africa and the global Adaptation Partnership, the United States is working with partners to bring together practitioners, policy-makers, and African technology innovators in order to highlight country-driven solutions to climate change adaptation in Africa.
The Apps4Africa: Climate Challenge consisted of three African regional competitions. Winners from the West and Central Africa contest were announced in December, and winners from the East Africa competition were announced in January. These contests built on the outcomes of regional climate change adaptation workshops organized by the Adaptation Partnership, which includes the United States and more than 20 other countries.
Winners will receive cash prizes. Private partners, including TED and Indigo Trust, are contributing follow-on support.
For more information please visit http://apps4africa.org.
U.S. Committed to Expanding Trade and Investment with Africa
July 4, 2012 | 0 Comments
By MacKenzie C. Babb*
Washington — The United States is committed to continuing to expand trade and investment in sub-Saharan Africa, a region that “represents the next global economic frontier,” according to Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Johnnie Carson.
“In addition to hosting six of the 10 fastest growing economies in the world, a recent McKinsey study documented that Africa offers the highest rate of return on foreign investment of any developing region, and has for some time,” Carson said in testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations subcommittee on Africa June 28.
He said consumer spending also continues to rise, and 43 percent of Africans currently have discretionary income, or could be considered middle-class consumers.
“Over the past decade, Africa’s growth was widespread across sectors including wholesale and retail trade, transportation, telecommunications and including manufacturing,” Carson said. “Foreign direct investment, or FDI, in Africa has also seen tremendous growth.” FDI projects in Africa have more than doubled from 339 in 2003 to 857 in 2011, according to Carson, with inter-African investment growing sharply from 27 projects in 2003 to 145 in 2011.
Combined with natural resource exports that have continued to generate significant revenues, Carson said, this steady growth has helped Africa to weather the global economic crisis more successfully than any other region in the world.
“In short, Africa is a trade and investment destination that cannot be ignored,” the assistant secretary said. “This is a continent on the move, and there are enormous opportunities for U.S. companies to enter the market, make money and create jobs” for both Americans and Africans.
“Greater U.S.-Africa trade is in the interests of both America and Africa, and we are determined to work to strengthen it,” Carson said.
Earl Gast, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) assistant administrator for Africa, said in testimony following Carson that foreign direct investment is approaching $80 billion a year and trade figures have tripled during the past decade.
“This fortune is not the result of good luck,” he said. “It’s the result of years of hard work and better management, governance, capital inflows and business climate.”
To translate this growth into transformational development in poverty reduction, Gast said, President Obama’s recently unveiled strategy for engaging with Africa promotes opportunity and development while spurring economic growth, trade and investment.
The cornerstone of U.S. engagement with Africa will continue to be the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), he said.
“Since 2001, exports under AGOA have increased more than 500 percent, and the African Coalition on Trade estimates that as many as 1.3 million jobs have been created indirectly by AGOA, supporting upwards of 10 million persons throughout the continent,” Gast said. He added that many of these jobs are held by women, “a vital building block for development given that African women are more likely to invest job-related income into food security, health and education of their families.”
Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Africa Florizelle Liser said Obama’s new strategy intends to “encourage economic growth, enhance trade and investment, support more jobs in the United States and help realize the full potential of the U.S.-sub-Saharan African economic partnership.”
The strategy was unveiled at the start of the June 14–15 AGOA Forum in Washington.
The 2012 forum brought together more than 600 participants, including top U.S. and African government officials, private-sector leaders and civil society representatives. It was preceded by a two-day civil society program June 12–13 in Washington and complemented by the African Women’s Entrepreneurship Program. The Corporate Council on Africa hosted its infrastructure conference June 18–20 in Washington, and the U.S.-Africa Business Conference was held in Cincinnati June 21–22.
AGOA, signed into law by then-President Bill Clinton in 2000, was designed to promote U.S. trade and investment ties with sub-Saharan Africa. It provides trade preferences to the 40 participating African countries through the removal of nearly all tariffs on their exports. It has broken down many trade and customs barriers in an effort to stimulate economic growth, encourage economic integration and help bring sub-Saharan Africa into the global economy.
Carson, Gast and Liser each emphasized the importance of the pivotal economic development program, and said Obama’s new Africa strategy keeps AGOA at the heart of U.S. engagement with Africa.
Africa: What Does China Want in Africa?
June 19, 2012 | 0 Comments
By Oscar Kimanuka,*
Recent stories about China’s growing interest in Africa are worth commenting on. For China, Africa is a source of cheap coal and oil, two vitally important resources for its energy needs. As for African states, China is the ideal commercial partner that seldom slaps special political pre-conditions upon its readily available suppliers, and regularly gives the continent diplomatic backing. According to Dr Tom Barnett, in his article “Why China matters”, “China’s entry to the world was globalisation’s tipping point. After this, there is only further integration or war”. That sounds pretty ominous! And there is also the speculation that it is unlikely that an economic Cold War with China would work without escalating into a conventional conflict.
However, the Sino-African growing relations are in direct conflict with the interests of the Unites States, which is also seriously concerned with the challenge of diversifying the sources of its oil imports. What Africa needs to learn is to put forward its vital interests and avoid continuing to be a damping ground of second rate products and source of cheap vital raw materials, as time has always shown.
China’s development record and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) have appealed to many African governments who believe that this is in line with their development agenda. There are, however, complaints from countries such as Ghana and South Africa against what they have called “negative impact of China’s imports”.
While the Western donor nations continue asking uncomfortable questions with regard to Africa’s transparency, accountability, human rights and economic openness, China is willing to cut deals, and ask no such questions.
It will be recalled that Beijing’s relations with Africa have had a long history dating close to six centuries when explorers set sail from Asia across the Indian Ocean. However, in more recent times and particularly during the Cold War era, Beijing is said to have lined up supporters of its well known “One China” Policy on Taiwan by using aid as a carrot. And this worked well. China has many times played the empathy card, telling developing countries, particularly those in Africa, that it is no stranger to poverty. African leaders have had no room for manoeuvre because Western donor countries, euphemistically, called development partners, dictate free trade, open markets and privatisation, all of which are not done with levelled ground rules.
China’s aid to Africa has, therefore, come at an opportune moment when economic growth in much of the continent remains largely stagnant and Western donor aid increasingly tied.
The number of Chinese companies operating in Africa today is testimony to the seriousness with which it is moving into the continent. For instance, by 2004, according to Stephen Marks, there were nearly 700 Chinese companies operating in about 49 African countries. Today the figure has increased to nearly 900.
The low interest loans at non-commercial rates, extended to African countries, have been rewarded with diplomatic support from the continent at the United Nations. Besides economic interests, China has, since 1963, sent over 15,000 of its doctors in about 47 countries to treat nearly 180 million of HIV/Aids and other infectious diseases.
China’s preference for technical support over financial aid to African countries arises from the fact that financial aid stretches resources and diverts capital from significant needs back home.
While some politicians in the Western world would want to view Africa as a moral cause, China would rather see Africa as a business opportunity. From the resurrection of a number of hitherto failed projects such as Zambia’s copper mines and new oil deals and other ventures concluded during previous visits by Chinese leaders, it seems that Africa’s door has been kicked wide open and Beijing is becoming a heavy weight investor and serious political player.
Whichever way one looks at it, for us in Africa, China’s emergence as a global power could help us break free of our bitter colonial past as we absorb its investments. From the Chinese textile merchants in Lesotho, Chinese tourists in Zimbabwe, Chinese road builders in Ethiopia, Chinese geologists in Sudan and elsewhere, the evidence of Chinese presence in Africa is no longer a matter of debate. Whether or not Africa is caring about its own interest is another question.
*Culled From The New Times
Introducing The African Kingdoms &Empires Theme Park or “Heritage City”
June 19, 2012 | 0 Comments
By Shanda Washington*
Despite its immense potential, Africa is grossly misunderstood by many across the world. Talk about Africa and based on the image that comes to many minds is one of misery, of disease, of illiteracy, of wars, famine, poverty and other negative labels used by the western media to brand the continent. Yet this is a continent described by US Under Secretary of State for African Affairs Johnnie Carson as the last biggest emerging market in the world. It is home to some 54 countries or so I believe, it is a billion man strong markets; it has vast resources some of which are not found anywhere else in the world. Because of these resources, global powers are now making a mad rush for Africa. Beyond the vast scramble for resources that salivates predatory appetites, lies historic realities that the world is ignorant about or refuses to come to terms with. Africa is the continent where civilization started, it is the continent that is home to humanity, it is a continent that has some of the best cultures in the world, it a continent with some of the biggest empires that the world ever knew. It is partly in a bid to help immortalize the historical realities of Africa that the African Kingdoms Empires theme or “Heritage City was conceived.
Heritage city is designed to showcase Africa’s rich history, enhanced with modern technology to produce a total experience in learning, entertainment and relaxation for tourists and visitors. Heritage city represents the best initiative till date to present all of Africa’s diverse culture and history to tourists and visitors in one spot. By its existence, it is hoped that Heritage City will attract wide range of tourists from all over the world. For many African Americans who yearn to know more about their roots, the City offers a unique opportunity to get a healthy feel of Africa’s rich heritage presented in the best possible form with a dose of modernity.
The African Kingdoms and Empires Theme Park or “Heritage City”, is an idea conceived by a very good friend of mine Ekwo Omakwu, when Ekwo showed me the business plan way back in 2000, I knew I had found my life’s calling. Through lots of research, we realized that Africa did not have anything like what we were trying to do. I did not know a lot about Africa, just what I had heard. After all, they don’t teach us about Africa in school. Although so many African Americans are still not very knowledgeable about Africa a lot of it is not their fault. We are constantly being bombarded with negative images about Africa. I can remember telling my friends and family about Heritage City. And a lot of the responses were “who’s going to go to a theme park in Africa?’ “Isn’t everyone over there poor?”
When someone says that everyone in Africa is poor, I have to remind them that Porsche just opened up its first dealership on Victoria Island in Lagos. That is not to diminish the problems that the Continent does have. But, we know that Heritage city will bring thousands of jobs and boost tourism. In Monrovia, Liberia Kendeja a resort, built by African American multimillionaire and Black Entertainment television founder Robert Johnson, is a five star resort. Kendeja is the first new hotel to be built in Liberia in a decade. Retail giants like Wal-Mart are searching for inroads n the continent. I think those are positive signs for Africa and shows that Africa has potential and that people are starting to notice and understand that Africa is really the future. I think as an African Americans we have to be more proactive in our engagement with the continent. Just as the investment of Robert Johnson in Liberia is a salutary initiative so too is the school opened by Oprah Winfrey in South Africa, so too is the work done by Actor Isaiah Washington in Sierra Leone with his Goondobay Foundation. The Heritage City idea falls in line with these kind of initiatives which should forge greater bonds between mother Africa and its Diaspora.
We hope to put together groups of people to take to the park. It is so important for people to see for themselves, that what they show us about Africa is not the truth. But overall, I do feel that people have been very positive about the park. We have a Facebook page that has almost 50,000 likes.
We believe that Heritage City can help dispel the myths about Africa. Heritage city will promote a greater understanding of Africa and will highlight Africa’s contribution to human civilization. By focusing more on Africa’s pre-slavery and pre-colonial era, the achievements of African people that have been otherwise obscured will be showcased at the theme park.
Abuja- Nigeria’s capital was chosen as the location for Heritage City because it is fast becoming a magnet city for the West African sub-region and for the rest of Africa. It is a new city with new infrastructure and space for continuous expansion. There are also a number of amazing rock formations, waterfalls, hills and valleys in Abuja and surrounding areas. It must not be forgotten that Nigeria is the giant of Africa. It is the leader in the continent with developments be there social, economic or security wise which impact the rest of the continent positively or negatively. It was therefore appropriate that Nigeria be chosen to host this first of its kind project.
Heritage City Project is championed by Heritage City Parks Limited-a private development company based in Abuja, Nigeria. The project funding and planning was packaged
by the Washington; DC based US-Africa Technology Council, Inc. The project concept was developed since 2002 but administrative bottle-necks on the part of the Nigerian city government have since delayed the approval of a site for the project and its initial take-off in 2006.Nigeria is currently not known as a popular tourist destination. The promoters of Heritage City hope all that will change when Heritage City opens in 2013. The Heritage City Project stands to gain tremendously on an annual basis from a large influx of international tourists including African Americans, citizens of the Caribbean, and also indigenous Africans themselves who will be interested in learning more about their heritage in an atmosphere that is tranquil, relaxing and entertaining. The African Kingdoms and Empires Theme Park will promote Africa’s rich cultural heritage by focusing on the historical dimensions that shaped that heritage.
*Shanda Washington is the project assistant for Heritage city, and social media PR she can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org ,cell phone 202-369-7170 .website www.heritagecitypark.com, Facebook page African heritage city.
The Dilemma at the Heart of America’s Approach to Africa
June 19, 2012 | 0 Comments
By Howard W. French*
JUBA, South Sudan — In an extraordinary pair of articles published this week, The Washington Post has filled in the picture of how the U.S. military and intelligence establishment have worked to create a network of a dozen or so air bases for spying purposes across Africa. What is most remarkable about the articles are not the details themselves, which involve small, specially equipped turboprop aircraft flying surveillance missions out of remote airfields in the Sahel and in equatorial East Africa.
What stands out most about the articles, instead, is the way that this news has cast the African continent as a place where serious American interests are at play. Such things are all too rare for the mainstream media, which typically chronicles African political upheaval, violence and suffering as distant and almost random incidents or miscellany with little connection to life outside of the continent.
The Africa of our day-to-day coverage is dominated, in other words, by vivid splashes of color, by scene and emotion, and it is largely bereft of form or of pattern, and of politics and ideas that could help connect one development to another or connect the whole to the rest of the world. Some of this may be changing slowly with the recent sharp rise of China’s profile throughout the continent, which has drawn a belated response from a United States suddenly eager to avoid seeing the continent be snatched away from the West, as some fear.
The Post pieces were ultimately as remarkable for what they didn’t say as what they did, though. And in this regard, they highlight the need for the media to hold the actions of the Unites States up against its rhetoric, much as it is wont to do with regard to China, whose rote-like discourse on Africa emphasizes terms like “win-win,” and “non-interference,” etc.
By helpful coincidence, the Post‘s stories, which detail the ongoing militarization of Washington’s policies toward Africa, were published at the very same time that the Obama Administration was unveiling its purportedly new strategy toward the continent.
The leading messenger for this was Hillary Clinton, whose talk yesterday about economic opportunity for American businesses in Africa was as welcome as it was overdue. As a spate of recent articles has made clear, she spoke of the Africa as a place of strong economic growth and the continent with the highest returns on investment. It is precisely Chinese firms’ awareness of this that has been driving them, and hundreds of thousands of Chinese migrants, to Africa in recent years in search of opportunity.
In policy briefings for the press, however, and in Clinton’s own statements, the promotion of democracy was given pride of place in a new American agenda for Africa, and this is where the rub comes between rhetoric and reality.
The Post piece reveals that the key American allies in Washington’s military and intelligence push are the leaders of Burkina Faso in West Africa and Uganda in East Africa. These two men, Blaise Compaoré in Burkina Faso and Yoweri Museveni in Uganda, have been in office respectively for 25 and 26 years. Both took power by force. Both have resisted real democratization in their countries. And both have been prolific and mischievous meddlers in neighboring countries, where their adventures have sown death and havoc, routinely employed child soldiers, and have involved lucrative arms trafficking as well as the organized pillage of natural resources either for their own benefit or for allies within their regimes.
Another American ally, this one emerging, as described by the Washington Post, is the year-old state of South Sudan, a country that Clinton described as a “success.” That will come as a surprise to many of the people here, whose own president has recently acknowledged the looting of $4 billion by his own associates from state coffers.
If Washington wishes to be taken seriously by Africans it has as much work to do as China in squaring words and deeds. Yesterday, the White House said its new policy commits the United States to advance democracy by “strengthening institutions at every level, supporting and building upon the aspirations throughout the continent for more open and accountable governance, promoting human rights and the rule of law, and challenging leaders whose actions threaten the credibility of democratic processes.”
One of the biggest impediments to the continent’s emergence, however, is the very existence of leaders like Compaoré and Museveni, who come to see themselves as irreplaceable, confusing their own persons with the state and seeking to remain in power indefinitely.
If Washington genuinely wishes to prioritize democracy in Africa, it might wish to privilege relations with the already substantial and growing number of states that are governed more democratically than places like these. For old friends like Museveni and newer ones like Compaoré, meanwhile, it is time to reexamine the question of what friendship is for and to ask whom does it really benefit?
If, on the other hand, American policy is really about fighting an endless succession of enemies, which is what seems to drive the security agenda that the Post has so usefully lifted the veil on, then candor should require admitting that building democracy is really important only when it is convenient.
*Culled from Howard W. French is the author of A Continent for the Taking: The Tragedy and Hope of Africa and as a fellow for the Open Society Foundations, a forthcoming book on China’s relationship with Africa. He teaches at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism and is a former senior writer and foreign correspondent for the New York Times. More
China to keep an open mind about cooperation with US in Africa
June 19, 2012 | 0 Comments
By Cui Haipei (China Daily)
China said on Friday that it will keep an open mind about discussions with the United States on cooperation in Africa. The remarks came after the White House unveiled a new strategy toward sub-Saharan Africa, with US President Barack Obama predicting that Africa will be “the world’s next major economic success story”.
“China and the US are both important cooperative partners of Africa, with respective characteristics and advantages,” Foreign Ministry spokesman Liu Weimin said at a regular news briefing.
Saying that Africa’s peace and stability concerns the prosperity and stability of the world, the spokesman stressed that the will of African countries should be respected and that cooperation should be based on the principles of equality and reciprocity.
The US strategy, outlined on Thursday, sets forth four strategic objectives in the region – to strengthen democratic institutions; spur economic growth, trade and investment; advance peace and security; and promote opportunity and development.
Calling support for democracy in Africa “critical to US interests” and “a fundamental component” of American leadership abroad, the blueprint said it is in the interest of the US to improve the region’s trade competitiveness and encourage the diversification of exports beyond natural resources.
Currently African countries face both new opportunities and difficulties, Liu said, calling on developed economies, including the US, to make positive contributions to Africa’s peace, stability and development. “They should respect the will of Africa, take Africa’s concerns into consideration and actively fulfill their commitment of assistance,” Liu said.
Acknowledging that only Africa’s governments and people can resolve the security challenges and internal divisions that have plagued the continent, the strategy envisions “a positive difference” that can be made by US involvement.
This report shows that the US is integrating Obama’s economic and military policies into a new overall strategy for Africa, said Yang Lihua, a researcher in African studies at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
She said US investment in Africa is not dominant when compared with China, and the US needs to further increase its input to reverse this position.
Sub-Saharan Africa is the world’s poorest region, Yang said. Infrastructure and power are potential areas in which China and the US could cooperate on that continent since the shortages are significant obstacles to economic development.
The US military is expanding its secret intelligence operations across Africa, establishing a network of small air bases to spy on terrorist hideouts, The Washington Post reported on Thursday.
Yang said the US has long sought to set its African military headquarters in the region and expanded its military presence in Africa to fight terrorism and dispel instabilities.
“But whether this goal can be reached depends on the attitude of the African Union, because African countries are generally wary of the interference of foreign military forces,” she said.
The effort spans from the fringes of the Sahara to jungle terrains along the equator, the report said, noting that operations had intensified in recent months as part of a growing war against al-Qaida affiliates and other militant groups.
“As we look toward the future, it is clear that Africa is more important than ever to the security and prosperity of the international community, and to the United States in particular,” Obama wrote in the prelude to the new strategy.
“Africa’s economies are among the fastest-growing in the world, with technological change sweeping across the continent and offering tremendous opportunities in banking, medicine, politics and business,” he said.
Obama, the first African-American president of the US, went to Ghana on an official visit in July 2009.
Xinhua contributed to this story.
*Culled from http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn
Herakles Farms Announces Update on Its Cameroon Palm Oil Subsidiary SGSOC
June 13, 2012 | 0 Comments
Company to Proceed with Phased Development Approach to Ensure Sustainable, Environmental and Socially Sensitive Growth
– Herakles Farms, a New York-based agriculture company operating in Ghana and Cameroon, today announced new details for its Cameroon palm oil subsidiary, SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC), and its decision to pursue a phased development approach to allow its many stakeholders to better understand the social and environmental benefits and impacts and to be responsive to the concerns of all stakeholders that may arise.
To date, SGSOC has cultivated less than 30 hectares in the Nguti, Mundemba and Toko Sub-Divisions of South West Cameroon. Specifically, this development entails three nurseries near the villages of Talangaye, Lipenja I, (Batanga) and Fabe, with 70,000 mature trees currently ready for transfer to the field. SGSOC recently conducted pre-clearing studies on the initial 2,000 hectares of land under evaluation for field-planting development. These studies included a detailed examination of the flora, fauna, and habitat of the land adjacent to the Talangaye nursery in order to ensure the maintenance and protection of all environmental and social high conservation value areas.
SGSOC committed to development in Cameroon in September 2009, when the Company and the Government of Cameroon signed an agreement to develop approximately 70,000 hectares of oil palm in an area classified by the Government as secondary forest in the South West Region. The area had suffered economically in large part because of its isolation from services and market opportunities. Since the land in the region had been logged and farmed repeatedly in the past, the Government of Cameroon responded to the communities’ needs by designating the land for commercial, agricultural and economic development.
SGSOC conducted an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) for the area and submitted it to the Government of Cameroon in August 2011. The Government thereafter issued its approval through a Certificate of Environmental Conformity in September 2011. In an April 2012 ruling, the Mundemba High Court affirmed that SGSOC had complied with these environmental and land-related Government regulations and that the Company has been in order with such requirements for legal operation in Cameroon.
While SGSOC expects that approximately 60,000 hectares may ultimately be suitable for planting, before it proceeds with transferring its trees from the nursery to the field, it has committed to performing additional pre-planting studies designed to ensure that the Company has thoroughly mapped all high conservation value sites, important lands for village use, buffer zones and fulfilled other obligations to key stakeholders.
In parallel to this phased approach, SGSOC is also helping to support rural employment and development, upgrading infrastructure including roads and enhancing critical services such as healthcare and schooling. For instance, together with the local organization of medical doctors, WecCare Foundation, a program was recently completed in the villages of Talangaye and Ayong near Nguti, and Lipenja I, Batanga and Meangwe near Toko. Consultations, informational booklets, medication and a range of selected surgeries with appropriate follow-up were included in the program. In terms of education, the Company donated textbooks to 35 secondary schools in all nine subdivisions in the Ndian Division. SGSOC continues to develop its longer-term medical and educational programs for the local villages in the area.
“Herakles Farms is committed to listening to the concerns of all stakeholders and modifying our practices where necessary. We want to be a responsible leader in developing sustainable agriculture that prioritizes community development,” stated Bruce Wrobel, CEO of Herakles Farms. “We are focused on balancing our commitments to the Government regarding job creation and economic development with the specific and important interests of the local communities, as well as NGOs and other stakeholders. We are proceeding in systematic phases in order to be responsive to all concerned. Going forward, we want to foster greater openness, transparency and collaboration in our activities.”
About Herakles Farms Established in 2009, Herakles Farms is focused on identifying and implementing solutions to important food security issues in Africa. The management team has a track record of developing environmentally and socially sustainable projects that result in economic development in some of the least-developed African countries, and has received numerous awards for its work. Previously known as SG Sustainable Oils (SGSO), the Company has been an active member of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) since 2008.
Contact Information: Ms. Delilah Rothenberg Herakles Farms 277 Park Avenue, 40th Floor New York, NY 10167 (212) 351-0176 Rothenberg@heraklescapital.com
SOURCE Herakles Farms
Cuba injects doctor diplomacy into Africa
June 11, 2012 | 0 Comments
By Nick Miroff*
Oil-pumping African nations pay hefty sums to staff their hospitals with thousands of Cuban doctors, with most of the money going to the Cuban government.
HAVANA, Cuba — Africa is a growth market for the world’s best-known Cuban brand after Havana Club rum and Cohiba cigars.
That would be Cuba Rx, also known as Havana’s doctor diplomacy.
A generation ago, Fidel Castro sent Cuban soldiers to intervene in African civil conflicts and fight the Cold War against US proxies. Now, Cuba’s doctors are fanning out across the continent as the island expands its role in administering medical services to some of the world’s most ailing countries.
For Cuba the effort is good philanthropy, good diplomacy and, in some cases, good business. The Cuban missionaries are part of a widening global medical outreach that has boosted Havana’s ties around the world and earned billions in hard currency for the cash-strapped Castro government.
The largest contingent of Cuban doctors working abroad remains in Venezuela, Cuba’s closest ally, where they have helped boost support for Hugo Chavez’s government by staffing clinics in rural areas and rough neighborhoods where health services are scarce.
In turn, the Venezuelan government sends Cuba billions in cash as well as critical supplies of oil. But Chavez is facing re-election in October as well as an uncertain recovery from an aggressive and still-undisclosed form of abdominal cancer.
If a leadership change in Venezuela were to cool relations with Cuba, thousands of Cuban doctors could be reassigned elsewhere — many to Africa, where fast-growing economies and rising commodity prices have left some governments flush with cash yet lacking in health care professionals.
Some 5,500 Cubans are already working in 35 of Africa’s 54 countries, Cuban Foreign Ministry official Marcos Rodriguez told reporters this week at a press conference in Havana.
Of those, 3,000 are health professionals, and 2,000 are doctors, he said.
“We have blood ties with Africa,” the deputy minister said.
Some 1.3 million African slaves were brought to Cuba during the island’s colonial period, Rodriguez said, and 2,289 Cubans died fighting in Angola between 1975 and 1990, where some 300,000 Cuban served.
“Cuba believes that it has a historic debt to Africa that must be repaid,” he said.
Then again, Cuba’s debt repayment is not an entirely one-way affair.
While Cuba sends physicians to Africa’s poorest countries and grants scholarships for their students to study medicine on the island, it does a brisk business with more prosperous countries on the continent — especially those that are rich with oil and poor in health professionals.
Petroleum-pumping Africa nations such as Algeria and Angola are paying hefty sums to staff their hospitals with Cuban doctors, with most of the money going to the Cuban government.
For instance, the Angolan government pays Cuba about $5,000 a month for each doctor the island sends, according to a source with knowledge of the arrangement. The Cuban doctor receives a $500 share.
It’s a tiny cut, but the amount is still about 10 times what Cuban doctors can earn back home. The Castro government also rewards physicians who complete medical “missions” with other perks — like the ability to buy a used car from the state.
The specific details of each arrangement between Cuba and the countries that receive its doctors and other professionals are not public. But the programs seem to work along three basic channels: providing medical help free to poor countries that can’t pay, charging countries that can pay, and training medical professionals at universities back in Cuba.
This sliding-scale policy has won Cuba friends around the world, as students from more than 100 countries have been trained at the island’s medical programs. According to a report this week in the Toronto Star, nearly 20,000 foreign students are currently receiving medical training in Cuba — including 116 Americans on scholarship.
But not all foreign students are studying in Cuba for free. When officials in Ghana announced recently they had reached a deal with the Castro government to train 250 doctors over a six-year period, the arrangement was criticized by Ghanan officials who argued the money would be better spent boosting education doctors back home.
Many African doctors who train abroad opt to work in foreign countries where salaries are higher, and the Cuba’s training urges them to serve their communities back home.
After the 1959 Cuban Revolution, Africa was one of the first places Cuba’s health missionaries went when a small medical brigade arrived in Algeria following the country’s anti-colonial fight against France. Cuban medical personnel also accompanied Cuban soldiers sent to aid leftist allies in Angola, Namibia and elsewhere.
And the ideological battle between the US and Cuba is still playing out on African soil. A program created by the Bush administration in 2006 creates special visas for Cuban medical personnel who wish to defect from their missions abroad.
About 800 doctors have done so to date, drawing fierce criticism from the Castro government, which says the US visa program deprives poor countries of desperately needed medical care.
Culled from GlobalPost
France Africa relations: Le Grand Divorce? By Nicholas Norbrook
June 11, 2012 | 0 Comments
Informal networks and unscrutinised presidential authority have shaped France’s Africa policy for decades. The last time a socialist politician won the presidency – François Mitterrand (1981-1995) – he promised to radically shake up France-Africa relations, as did President Nicolas Sarkozy (2007-2012). It is now President François Hollande’s turn to try to push for good governance and to normalise relations with France’s former colonies.
Tricolores, alongside Algerian and Syrian flags, billowed over Place de la Bastille on 6 May, a historic ground zero for global revolutionaries and a happy stamping ground for France’s left. The election of the Socialist candidate to the Elysée raises hopes in Africa too. Perhaps this time there will be a definitive break with the past, an end to the nebulous and opaque net- works of what has become known as Françafrique. Perhaps.
The main charge against France is that it froze the political evolution of its former colonies, even as it gave them independence (see timeline). Proof of the perennity of the system: President Nicolas Sarkozy supported the attempt to shoe horn Karim Wade, son of the increasingly autocratic Abdoulaye Wade, into the Senegalese presidency. France’s foreign minister Michèle Alliot-Marie offered French police training to the thugs of Presid- ent Zine el Abidine Ben Ali in Tunisia. This attempt by a French minister to stop the Arab Spring in its tracks – by a minister who had been accepting largesse from her Tunisian counter- parts – is the latest stain on France’s conscience.
And this political freeze has led to arrested development. On many metrics, Francophone African countries lag behind their continental peers. French-speaking Africa represents 19% of sub-Saharan Africa’s gross domestic product, whereas English-speaking Africa represents around a half – and that is excluding South Africa. Of the 187 countries ranked by the United Nations Development Programme’s human development index, seven of the 10 worst performers are Francophone countries. Burundi, Niger and the Democratic Republic of Congo are the last three on that list. France gets 60% of the uranium it uses for its world-beating nuclear industry from Africa – including Niger.
CÉLLULE AFRICAINE NO MORE
Not everyone agrees. Côte d’ Ivoire’s President Alassane Ouattara told The Africa Report: “If you take Francophone countries of the CFA franc zone, I think that the situation is actually much better than many Anglophone countries. There has been a real mastering of inflation, which really is a cancer for the poor. There has been strong growth. Perhaps the populations of these countries did not get as fair a share of this growth as they should have.”
Regardless of the debate over how far Francophone Africa has been hamstrung by its former colonial master, the question going forward is can Hollande end Françafrique? During his campaign Hollande claimed, like Sarkozy before him, that there would be a ‘rupture’ with “the old habits of Françafrique”.
But Kader Arif, a Socialist member of the European Parliament and Hollande’s advisor on development mat- ters, says that the change will be radical. “We will get rid of the cellule africaine, place African affairs under the Minister of Foreign Affairs and give parliament anoversightrole.”This is a positive sign: the personalisation of politics under Elysée secretary general Jacques Foccart allowed for clientelism to flourish.
And there are signs that Hollande will be tougher on corruption. Addressing members of Amnesty International and Oxfam, his defence spokesman Jean-Yves Le Drian has said Hollande will impose tighter controls on arms sales. French company Thompson-CSF (now Thales) was involved in a troubled South African arms deal of 1999.
Another of Hollande’s advisors is William Bourdon of Sherpa, a non-govern- mental organisation formed by lawyers that took three Central African lead- ers to court – Teodoro Obiang Nguema of Equatorial Guinea, the late Omar Bongo Ondimba of Gabon and Denis Sassou-Nguesso of Congo-Brazzaville – in March 2007. The investigators behind the ‘biens mal acquis’ affair demand that these presidents account for their endless lists of properties and bank accounts in France. Eva Joly, the 2012 presidential candidate for the Europe Écologie-Les Verts party and the former investigative magistrate who brought down the national oil company Elf in the 1990s, may well receive a role in government.
NOT JUST ANY REGIME
The ties that bind France’s political elite to the Françafrique system run deep. Eyebrows were raised when Laurent Fabius, a potential future foreign minister for Hollande, made trips to see the presidents of Gabon, Togo and Benin between December 2011 and this February. Contacted for this article, Fabius declined to comment. For Jean-Christophe Rufin, France’s former ambassador to Senegal under Sarkozy, this sent all the wrong signals, “as if the bad old habits have come back”.
“Not at all,” said Arif. “We will not work with just any regime, and it’s not only the candidate [François Hollande]who is saying this but it is a collective expression of will. Those regimes that are not moving in the direction of democracy shouldn’t be frequented.” He went on to explain the importance of opening France to non-traditional partners including South Africa, Ghana and Nigeria.
Kofi Yamgnane, a Franco-Togolese politician now running Africa relations for Hollande, is a connection to the days of the late President François Mitterrand. The last time the Socialists had the presidency, there was a similar great hope for change in Franco-African relations that was quickly dashed. On discovering how Elf showered the French political class with money, Mitterrand did not close down the system but just insisted the Parti Socialiste receive its cut. His son, Jean-Christophe Mitterrand, or ‘Papa m’a dit’ (Papa told me) as he came to be known, was good friends with the son of Charles Pasqua, a key player in President Jacques Chirac’s Africa policy. Both sons would be caught up in the Angolagate affair, the illegal sale of arms to Angola.
President Sarkozy did not appear to remove himself from the shadowy net- works of years past. Pascaline Bongo, who ran her father’s finances, sat in the front row at Sarkozy’s investiture as candidate, next to the financiers of his…